In Part 1 of this series, we built a few simple patient flow simulation models using SimPy. They all were process oriented. In this post, I'll share my first attempt at an object oriented (OO) SimPy model for the same system. As mentioned in my previous post, I've had good luck building large complex discete event simulation models (including patient flow) with the object oriented Java library Simkit. In the process of building these initial OO models, I learned a bunch from the posts done by the folks at Grotto Networking.

OB patient flow system to model

As a reminder, here's a picture of the simple system I'll be modeling.

For this first set of simple models, features/assumptions of the system include:

  • Patients in labor arrive according to a poisson process
  • Assume c-section rate is zero and that all patients flow from OBS --> LDR --> PP units.
  • Length of stay at each unit is exponentially distributed with a given unit specific mean
  • Each unit has capacity level (i.e. the number of beds)
  • Arrival rates and mean lengths of stay hard coded as constants. Later versions will read these from input files.

I'm going to start by building the simplest model possible and then start layering on complexity and features.

obflow_5_oo_2: A simple object oriented SimPy patient flow model

Since I'm new to SimPy, this first object oriented model will be relatively simple. There are only four classes:

  • OBPatientGenerator - generates patients
  • OBPatient - a patient; generated by OBPatientGenerator
  • OBUnit - for modeling the OBS, LDR, and PP units
  • ExitFlow - sink to which patients are routed when ready to leave the system

My goal was to just figure out how to model a simple static route, OBS -> LDR -> PP -> Exit, using SimPy in an OO way. Let's look at each class and then at the main driver script. You can get the code for this and the other models at

Imports and constants

In [2]:
import simpy
from numpy.random import RandomState

Simple OB patient flow model 5 - Very simple OO


- Generate arrivals via Poisson process
- Define an OBUnit class that contains a simpy.Resource object as a member.
  Not subclassing Resource, just trying to use it as a member.
- Routing is done via setting ``out`` member of an OBUnit instance to
 another OBUnit instance to which the OB patient flow instance should be
 routed. The routing logic, for now, is in OBUnit object. Later,
 we need some sort of router object and data driven routing.
- Trying to get patient flow working without a process function that
explicitly articulates the sequence of units and stays.

Key Lessons Learned:

- Any function that is a generator and might potentially yield for an event
  must get registered as a process.

# Arrival rate and length of stay inputs.
ARR_RATE = 0.4

# Unit capacities

# Random number seed
RNG_SEED = 6353

The OBPatientGenerator class

This class generates OB patients according to a simple poisson process (exponential interarrival times). Its run() method gets registered as a SimPy process. The main loop in run() yields until the time for the next arrival. Upon arrival, a new OBPatient instance is generated and a request is initiated for a bed in the first unit of the patient's route - OBS in this case. We'll see shortly how the routing information is included in the OBPatient class (a "hack" that we'll remedy later with proper routing related classes).

A few niceties were added to the class based on things I know will be useful to have later. These include:

  • arrival stream and patient type attributes; future versions of this model will support multiple patient types (e.g. spontaneous labor and induced labor) and arrival streams (e.g. random and scheduled),
  • ability to shut off arrivals based on simulation time or number of patients generated.
In [3]:
class OBPatientGenerator(object):
    """ Generates patients.

        Set the "out" member variable to resource at which patient generated.

        env : simpy.Environment
            the simulation environment
        arr_rate : float
            Poisson arrival rate (expected number of arrivals per unit time)
        arr_stream : int
            Arrival stream id (default 1). Currently there is just one arrival
            stream corresponding to the one patient generator class. In future,
            likely to be be multiple generators for generating random and
            scheduled arrivals
        initial_delay : float
            Starts generation after an initial delay. (default 0.0)
        stoptime : float
            Stops generation at the stoptime. (default Infinity)
        max_arrivals : int
            Stops generation after max_arrivals. (default Infinity)
        debug: bool
            If True, status message printed after
            each patient created. (default False)


    def __init__(self, env, arr_rate, patient_type=1, arr_stream=1,
                 max_arrivals=simpy.core.Infinity, debug=False):

        self.env = env
        self.arr_rate = arr_rate
        self.patient_type = patient_type
        self.arr_stream = arr_stream
        self.initial_delay = initial_delay
        self.stoptime = stoptime
        self.max_arrivals = max_arrivals
        self.debug = debug
        self.out = None
        self.num_patients_created = 0

        self.prng = RandomState(RNG_SEED)

        self.action = env.process(  # starts the run() method as a SimPy process

    def run(self):
        """The patient generator.
        # Delay for initial_delay
        yield self.env.timeout(self.initial_delay)
        # Main generator loop that terminates when stoptime reached
        while < self.stoptime and \
                        self.num_patients_created < self.max_arrivals:
            # Delay until time for next arrival
            # Compute next interarrival time
            iat = self.prng.exponential(1.0 / self.arr_rate)
            yield self.env.timeout(iat)
            self.num_patients_created += 1
            # Create new patient
            obp = OBPatient(, self.num_patients_created,
                            self.patient_type, self.arr_stream,

            if self.debug:
                print("Patient {} created at {:.2f}.".format(

            # Set out member to OBunit object representing next destination
            self.out = obunits[obp.planned_route_stop[1]]
            # Initiate process of requesting first bed in route

The OBPatient class

These are the patients. As mentioned above, routing info (for now) is hard coded into this class. Each patient has same static route of OBS -> LDR -> PP. Lists are used to store routing information. Python uses 0 based indexing but we've chosen to use the [1] spot for OBS, [2] for LDR, and [3] for PP quantities. The [0] slot isn't used. Just wanted to avoid a bunch of current_stop_num - 1 type of code fragments. Makes the code more readable, especially since we often have to refer to the previous stop and wish to avoid things like current_stop_num - 2 to mean the previous stop. Obviously this is simple to change if you'd rather use 0 for stop number 1.

Several lists are used to store bed request instances as well as useful timestamps (any variable name ending in _ts such as entry and exit times to each unit.

In [4]:
class OBPatient(object):
    """ Models an OB patient

        arr_time : float
            Patient arrival time
        patient_id : int
            Unique patient id
        patient_type : int
            Patient type id (default 1). Currently just one patient type.
            In our prior research work we used a scheme with 11 patient types.
        arr_stream : int
            Arrival stream id (default 1). Currently there is just one arrival
            stream corresponding to the one patient generator class. In future,
            likely to be be multiple generators for generating random and
            scheduled arrivals.


    def __init__(self, arr_time, patient_id, patient_type=1, arr_stream=1,
        self.arr_time = arr_time
        self.patient_id = patient_id
        self.patient_type = patient_type
        self.arr_stream = arr_stream = 'Patient_{}'.format(patient_id)

        # Hard coding route, los and bed requests for now
        # Not sure how best to do routing related data structures.
        # Hack for now using combination of lists here, the out member
        # and the obunits dictionary.
        self.current_stay_num = 0
        self.route_length = 3

        self.planned_route_stop = []

        self.planned_los = []

        # Since we have fixed route for now, just initialize full list to
        # hold bed requests
        self.bed_requests = [None for _ in range(self.route_length + 1)]
        self.request_entry_ts = [None for _ in range(self.route_length + 1)]
        self.entry_ts = [None for _ in range(self.route_length + 1)]
        self.exit_ts = [None for _ in range(self.route_length + 1)]

    def __repr__(self):
        return "patientid: {}, arr_stream: {}, time: {}". \
            format(self.patient_id, self.arr_stream, self.arr_time)

The OBUnit class

This class is used to model the OBS, LDR and PP units. It does most of the heavy lifting related to patients flowing into and out of the various units. It can be used to model both finite and infinite capacity resources. A few basic statistal accumulators are included. The out member gets set to the next unit to be visited by the patient.

In [6]:
class OBunit(object):
    """ Models an OB unit with fixed capacity.

        env : simpy.Environment
            the simulation environment
        name : str
            unit name
        capacity : integer (or None)
            Number of beds. Use None for infinite capacity.


    def __init__(self, env, name, capacity=None, debug=False):
        if capacity is None:
            self.capacity = simpy.core.Infinity
            self.capacity = capacity

        self.env = env = name
        self.debug = debug

        # Use a simpy Resource as one of the class members
        self.unit = simpy.Resource(env, capacity)

        # Statistical accumulators
        self.num_entries = 0
        self.num_exits = 0
        self.tot_occ_time = 0.0

        # The out member will get set to destination unit
        self.out = None

    def put(self, obp):
        """ A process method called when a bed is requested in the unit.

            The logic of this method is reminiscent of the routing logic
            in the process oriented obflow models 1-3. However, this method
            is used for all of the units - no repeated logic.

            env : simpy.Environment
                the simulation environment

            obp : OBPatient object
                the patient requestion the bed


        if self.debug:
            print("{} trying to get {} at {:.4f}".format(,

        # Increments patient's attribute number of units visited
        obp.current_stay_num += 1
        # Timestamp of request time
        bed_request_ts =
        # Request a bed
        bed_request = self.unit.request()
        # Store bed request and timestamp in patient's request lists
        obp.bed_requests[obp.current_stay_num] = bed_request
        obp.request_entry_ts[obp.current_stay_num] =
        # Yield until we get a bed
        yield bed_request

        # Seized a bed.
        obp.entry_ts[obp.current_stay_num] =

        # Check if we have a bed from a previous stay and release it.
        # Update stats for previous unit.

        if obp.bed_requests[obp.current_stay_num - 1] is not None:
            previous_request = obp.bed_requests[obp.current_stay_num - 1]
            previous_unit_name = \
                obp.planned_route_stop[obp.current_stay_num - 1]
            previous_unit = obunits[previous_unit_name]
            previous_unit.num_exits += 1
            previous_unit.tot_occ_time += \
       - obp.entry_ts[obp.current_stay_num - 1]
            obp.exit_ts[obp.current_stay_num - 1] =

        if self.debug:
            print("{} entering {} at {:.4f}".format(,,
        self.num_entries += 1
        if self.debug:
            if > bed_request_ts:
                waittime = - bed_request_ts
                print("{} waited {:.4f} time units for {} bed".format(,

        # Determine los and then yield for the stay
        los = obp.planned_los[obp.current_stay_num]
        yield self.env.timeout(los)

        # Go to next destination (which could be an exitflow)
        next_unit_name = obp.planned_route_stop[obp.current_stay_num + 1]
        self.out = obunits[next_unit_name]
        if obp.current_stay_num == obp.route_length:
            # For ExitFlow object, no process needed
            # Process for putting patient into next bed

    def basic_stats_msg(self):
        """ Compute entries, exits, avg los and create summary message.

            Message with basic stats

        if self.num_exits > 0:
            alos = self.tot_occ_time / self.num_exits
            alos = 0

        msg = "{:6}:\t Entries={}, Exits={}, Occ={}, ALOS={:4.2f}".\
            format(, self.num_entries, self.num_exits,
                   self.unit.count, alos)
        return msg

The ExitFlow class

This is a "sink" and is used as a place to trigger any post-processing needs after the patient has completed their entire route through the OB system. For now we are just doing some basic statistical and conservation of flow summaries. More importantly, this class handles releasing the last bed in the patient's route.

In [7]:
class ExitFlow(object):
    """ Patients routed here when ready to exit.

        Patient objects put into a Store. Can be accessed later for stats
        and logs. A little worried about how big the Store will get.

        env : simpy.Environment
            the simulation environment
        debug : boolean
            if true then patient details printed on arrival

    def __init__(self, env, name, store_obp=True, debug=False): = simpy.Store(env)
        self.env = env = name
        self.store_obp = store_obp
        self.debug = debug
        self.num_exits = 0
        self.last_exit = 0.0

    def put(self, obp):

        if obp.bed_requests[obp.current_stay_num] is not None:
            previous_request = obp.bed_requests[obp.current_stay_num]
            previous_unit_name = obp.planned_route_stop[obp.current_stay_num]
            previous_unit = obunits[previous_unit_name]
            previous_unit.num_exits += 1
            previous_unit.tot_occ_time += - obp.entry_ts[
            obp.exit_ts[obp.current_stay_num - 1] =

        self.last_exit =
        self.num_exits += 1

        if self.debug:

        # Store patient
        if self.store_obp:

    def basic_stats_msg(self):
        """ Create summary message with basic stats on exits.

            Message with basic stats

        msg = "{:6}:\t Exits={}, Last Exit={:10.2f}".format(,

        return msg

Main driver script

This looks much like the code in the previous models detailed in Part 1 of this series. One important change in this model is that the simulation environment variable is never used as a "global" variable. Any class needing access to the simulation environment explicitly requires it in its __init__ method.

In [9]:
# Initialize a simulation environment
simenv = simpy.Environment()

# Compute and display traffic intensities

print("rho_obs: {:6.3f}\nrho_ldr: {:6.3f}\nrho_pp: {:6.3f}".format(rho_obs,

# Create nursing units
obs_unit = OBunit(simenv, 'OBS', CAPACITY_OBS, debug=False)
ldr_unit = OBunit(simenv, 'LDR', CAPACITY_LDR, debug=False)
pp_unit = OBunit(simenv, 'PP', CAPACITY_PP, debug=False)

# Define system exit
exitflow = ExitFlow(simenv, 'EXIT', store_obp=False)

# Create dictionary of units keyed by name. This object can be passed along
# to other objects so that the units are accessible as patients "flow".
obunits = {'OBS': obs_unit, 'LDR': ldr_unit, 'PP': pp_unit, 'EXIT': exitflow}

# Create a patient generator
obpat_gen = OBPatientGenerator(simenv, ARR_RATE, debug=False)

# Routing logic
# Currently routing logic is hacked into the OBPatientGenerator
# and OBPatient objects

# Run the simulation for a while
runtime = 1000

# Patient generator stats
print("\nNum patients generated: {}\n".format(obpat_gen.num_patients_created))

# Unit stats

# System exit stats
print("\nNum patients exiting system: {}\n".format(exitflow.num_exits))
print("Last exit at: {:.2f}\n".format(exitflow.last_exit))
rho_obs:  0.600
rho_ldr:  0.800
rho_pp:  0.800

Num patients generated: 453

OBS   :	 Entries=431, Exits=429, Occ=2, ALOS=4.27
LDR   :	 Entries=429, Exits=425, Occ=4, ALOS=11.68
PP    :	 Entries=425, Exits=402, Occ=23, ALOS=48.40

Num patients exiting system: 402

Last exit at: 998.69

Next Steps

Now that I have a feel for how SimPy works, I've got two parallel directions to pursue.

Task 1: Research quality SimPy model

I'll start creating a more full featured version that replicates the functionality of the Simio based model I used in a recent research project. Some of the goals for this new version will be:

  • volume, length of stay, routing information and other key inputs should be read in from structured data input files (probably YAML or JSON format),
  • create routing classes to handle both random and scheduled arrivals,
  • capability to generate time dependent Poisson arrivals,
  • detailed patient flow logging to files,
  • more statistical output analysis,
  • comprehensive documentation,
  • a test suite including validation via queueing models (for tractable cases).

Task 2: Rebuild this model using the R package, simmer

I'm a regular user of R for both research and teaching. So, I was pleasantly surprised to learn about a DES framework for R (!). The simmer package looks relatively new and seems to be positioning itself similarly to SimPy. Here's the description from their main web page:

simmer is a process-oriented and trajectory-based Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) package for R. Designed to be a generic framework like SimPy or SimJulia, it leverages the power of Rcpp to boost the performance and turning DES in R feasible. As a noteworthy characteristic, simmer exploits the concept of trajectory: a common path in the simulation model for entities of the same type. It is pretty flexible and simple to use, and leverages the chaining/piping workflow introduced by the magrittr package.

Interesting. While I love chaining/piping via magrittr, especially when using the mighty dplyr package, I'm wondering if this will tie simmer to a process oriented simulation world view. I can see how the notion of a trajectory might lend itself to chaining and piping. Let's find out. I'll post the simmer version as soon as I get one working.

In [ ]: